Pavlov, Ivan (1849-1936)
A Russian physiologist who won the Nobel prize for his work on the digestive system of dogs. In the course of his work he chanced upon a PHENOMENON he could not explain and followed it (reluctantly) out of physiology and into PSYCHOLOGY. What puzzled him was that his dogs began to salivate not only when they were presented with food but even before they were fed. when they recognised the man coming to feed them. The series ofEXPERIMENTS he designed in an attempt to find the causes of this BEHAVIOURA became known as CLASSICAL CONDITIONING and Pavlov spent the last thirty years of his life working out the applications and the implications of his discovery. Though Pavlov thought he had found a way of studying the BRAIN, rather than behaviour, his work inspired a new American school of psychology called BEHAVIOURISM.